Krishna Yajurveda

By Dr. Korada Subrahmanyam

Introduction

Veda means a mass of knowledge. It was sage Vedavyāsa, who separated the vast mass of knowledge into four – Ṛgveda, Yajurveda, Sāmaveda and Atharvaveda. All the Vedas are emanated from Brahman, the very cause of the universe and as such they are considered Apauruṣeya (not authored by humans). So there is no chance of human error in Vedic literature. Veda is a device to achieve the desired and arrest the undesired. The procedure for performing different Yāgas is available only in Yajurveda. It also prescribes as to which Mantra of Ṛgveda, Sāmaveda and Yajurveda is useful at which point of time etc. Therefore Yajurveda is considered as a wall and Ṛgveda and Sāmaveda are pictures on it. It is Adhvaryu , who recites Yajurveda during a Yāga .

Yajurveda is of two types – Kṛṣṇayajurveda and Śuklayajurveda. Sage Yājñavalkya learnt Yajurveda from Vaiśampāyana. There was some difference of opinion between the teacher and the disciple and the former demanded return of Vidyā by the latter. Yājñavalkya with his Yogaśakti (capacity of Yoga) vomited the Vidyā as a concrete substance. The teacher Vaiśampāyana asked the other disciples to consume it. They got the form of Tittiri birds and consumed some portion of it. So some of it is Ādhvarya (Yajus) and the other part is Ṛgveda. Since it is not an established form and causes blemishes in the mind it is called Kṛṣṇa (black). Whereas, Yājñavalkya prayed to Sūrya (Sun) and got a perfectly structured Śuklayajurveda. The former is also called Taittirīyasaṃhitā.

According to Śatapathabrāhamaṇa, Yajurveda has got two traditions (sampradāya) – Brahmasampradāya and Ādityasampradāya. Brahmasampradāya is Kṛṣṇayajurveda whereas Ādityasampradāya is Śuklayajurveda.

Kṛṣṇayajurveda has got one hundred and one branches (Śākhas) – says Patañjali in Paspaśā of Mahābhāṣyam.

2. Yajuḥ

The term literally means a sentence that is employed in the worship of Gods (root yaj = worship of God etc.). Jaimini defines a Yajus (Mīmāṃsāsūtram 2.1.37) –

शेषे यजुश्शब्दः (मीमाांसासूत्रम्, २.१.३७)

śeṣe yajuśśabdaḥ (Mīmāṃsāsūtram, 2.1.37)

yajuśśabdaḥ = the term yajuḥ is applicable, śeṣe = in a Vedic unit, where it is neither Ṛk (having meter) nor Sāma (singing).

The Vedic stretch, which is neither Ṛk nor Sāma, but a clustered lot is called Yajus.

3. Śākhas

Kṛṣṇayajurveda has got eighty-six Śākhas (branches). Twelve of them are called Carakaśākhas. Caraka is another name for Vaiśampāyana. Only four Śākhas of Kṛṣṇayajurveda are available presently –

i. Taittirīyasaṃhitā

There are seven Kāṇḍas, forty-four Prapāṭhakas and six hundred and thirty-five Anuvākas in this Saṃhitā. Vājapeyayāga, Rājasūyayāga etc. are vividly described in this Śākha. Commentaries (Bhāṣyas) by Bhaṭṭabhāskara and Sāyaṇācārya are available.

ii. Maitrāyaṇīsaṃhitā

Also called Kālapaśākha. There are four Kāṇḍas, fifty-four Prapāṭhakas and two thousand and forty-four Mantras. Darśapūrṇamāsa, Cāturmāsya, Rājasūya, Aśvamedha etc. Yāgas are proposed in this Śākha.

iii. Kaṭhasaṃhitā

There are five Kāṇḍas, forty Sthānakas (Adhyāyas / chapters), thirteen Anuvacanas, eight hundred and forty-three Anuvākas and three thousand and ninety-one Mantras in this Śākha. Agniṣtoma, Aśvamedha, Kāmyeṣṭi and Rājasūya are described in this Śākha.

iv. Kāpiṣṭhalakaṭhasaṃhitā

There are six Khaṇḍas (chapters) and are divided into Aṣṭakas. Some of the Adhyāyas (32, 33, 43) and parts of some Adhyāyas (9-24) are not available.

Presently it is Taittirīyaśākha, that is in vogue.

4. Significance of Taittirīyaśākha

This particular Śākha is supported by nine Śikṣāgranthas (treatises of Phonetics), one Prātiśākhya (Vedic grammar), Chandas (Prosody), Niruktam (Etymology), Jyotiṣam (Astrology) and Kalpasūtras and other complete details, and looks different from other Vedas.

The Upāsanas that are mentioned in the Kṛṣṇayajurveda are useful not only in attaining comfort in other world but also in having a comfortable and happy life in this world. The forms and natures of Agni (Fire), Vayu (Air), Jalam (Water), which surround the human beings, are beautifully described in Taittirīya.

5. Five-fold division and Yāgas

Kṛṣṇayajussaṃhitā is divided into five parts – Prājapatya, Saumya, Āgneya, Vaiśvadeva and Svāyambhuva. The Mantras required right from Agnihotrayāga down to Satrayāga are clearly mentioned in the above divisions. Haviryāga, Jyotiṣṭoma, Sarvatomukha, Vājapeya, Aśvamedha, Sarvapṛṣṭhāptoryāma (Agnicayanam / Garuḍacayanam) and Satrayāga are explained in this Veda.

6. Prakṛti and Vikṛti Yāgas

There are two kinds of Yāgas – Prakṛtiyāga and Vikṛtiyāga. Prakṛti is the one in which the complete range of constituents is provided, whereas with only some extra constituents being mentioned it becomes Vikṛti. In Vikṛti the other constituents are to be borrowed from Prakṛti.

Prakṛti is of three types: Agnihotram, Iṣṭi and Soma. Darśapūrṇamāsa (the sacrifice performed during new moon day and full moon day) is a Prakṛtiyāga. Agniṣṭoma is a Prakṛti to all Somayāgas.

7. Rudrapraśasti / Rudram

This is the fifth Prapāṭhaka of fourth Kāṇḍa. Sicne the word “namaḥ” is repeatedly heard it is also called Namakam or Śrīrudranamakam. Another portion, i.e. seventh Prapāṭhaka wherein the words “ca me” repeat is called “camakam”. Both these are very popular and outside a Yāga, is used to perform “Rudrābhiṣekam” (bathing Śiva) and is considered a device to thwart the ill-effects of Śani (planet Saturn) detected from the horoscope.

8. Adhvaryuveda

The Taittirīyasaṃhitā is popular among priests by the name Adhvaryuveda since time immemorial. The Mantras that are there in Darśapūrṇamāseṣṭi are three-fold: Ādhvaryavāḥ, Yājāmānāḥ and Hautrakāḥ.

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9. A Brief Survey of Taittirīyasaṃhitā

The Saṃhitā in question is divided into seven Kāṇḍas, forty-four Prapāṭhakas and six hundred and thirty-five Anuvākas. Prapāṭhakas are also called Adhyāyas (chapters) and Anuvākas are called Praśnas. While discussing the original Kāṇḍas are called Aṣṭakas whereas in Bhāṣyam Aṣṭakas are called Kāṇḍas. Taittirīyasaṃhitā is full of material related to Yāgas.

i. First Kāṇḍa

There are eight Prapāṭhakas and one hundred and forty Anuvākas in this Kāṇḍa. Mantras related to Darśapūrṇamāsayāga, Devayajanasvīkāra (Somayāgāṅga), Somakrayaṇam and Ātithyeṣṭi are available. Karmas like Harvirdhānam, Sāmidhenī, Vaisarjanahomam, 6

Yūpasthāpanam, Upākaraṇam, Avabhṛtham etc. are explained. After Somayāga, Āśravaṇam, Anvāhāryavidhi, Vājapeya, Rājasūyayāga – Sautrāmaṇi, Mahāpitṛyajñam etc. are analyzed.

ii. Second Kāṇḍa

It consists of six Prapāṭhakas and seventy-five Anuvākas. Agni dominates the scene – he is the deity all Gods personified. Viṣṇu is Yāga personified. Curd, honey, ghee (clarified butter), water and fired (raw) rice are called Pañcadravyas (five ingredients) or Havis (the substance dropped in holy fire during Yāga). Prajāpati is the deity of the above ingredients. Āmikṣāyāga, a sacrifice to be performed on new moon day with Mitra and Varuṇa as deities is described in this Kāṇḍa and it is for realization of Gods.

iii. Third Kāṇḍa

The popular Rathantarasāma and Bṛhatsāma (employed in Yāga) are discussed here. The three time pressing of Somalata (Soma creeper), i.e. morning, afternoon and evening, viz. Prātassavanam, Mādhyandinasavanam, Sāyamsavanam are mentioned here. The Jayādimantras, wherein it is stated that different deities are the lords of different things, are here – Agni (fire) is the lord of all beings, Indra of kings, Yama of earth, Vāyu (air) of Antarikṣa (space between heaven and earth), Sūrya (Sun) of Dyuloka (heaven), Candra (Moon) of stars, Bṛhaspati of Brāhmaṇas, Mitra of Satyam (truth) etc.

iv. Fourth Kāṇḍa

There are seven Prapāṭhakas and seventy-two Anuvākas in this Kāṇḍa. The Kāṇḍa starts with the praise of Agni (fire) –

Agni is in the form of Jaṭharāgni (digestive fire) of herbs, born in the sea, provider of rain, born in forests etc.

In the fifth Prapāṭhaka of this Kāṇḍa there is “Śatarudrīyam” or “Namakam” in which Īśvara is worshipped as the form of the universe. In the seventh Prapāṭhaka is “Camakam” wherein a prayer is made to the five elements, eight directions, six seasons and the entire Prakṛti.

v. Fifth Kāṇḍa

It consists of seven Prapāṭhakas and one hundred and twenty Anuvākas. Aśvamedhayāga, that kills all the natural calamities is proposed in this Kāṇḍa. It is also mentioned that the Gods, in their earlier human incarnation performed Aśvamedha and got relieved from an upapātaka (sub-sin) of Govadha (culling a cow) and a mahāpātaka (great sin) of Brahmahatya (killing a Brāhmaṇa).

vi. Sixth Kāṇḍa

Six Prapāṭhakas and sixty-six Anuvākas are there in this Kāṇḍa. Before entering the battle field, kings used to perform “upasaddhoma” (a sacrifice involving holy fire). Even Devatas used these Āhutis (oblations) before fighting the Rākṣasas (demons) and they are called “Upasat”.

vii. Seventh Kāṇḍa

Five Prapāṭhakas and one hundred and seven Anuvākas constitute this Kāṇḍa. Prajāpati performed Pañcarātrayāga before dividing the Saṃvatsara (year) into seasons. Agniṣṭoma (Trivṛtstoma), Pañcadaśastoma, Ukthya (Saptadaśastoma), Agniṣṭoma and Viśvajit are performed during five days and the same is called Pañcarātrayāga. Aśvamedha, Saṃvatsarasatram etc. are also detailed in this Kāṇḍa. Śatatantuvīṇa (a lute having a hundred strings) is described in this Kāṇḍa.

10. Definition of Yajus

Jaimini in his Pūrvamīmāṃsādarśanam (2.1.14.46) defined a Yajus. Rather, he uses the word “vākyam” (sentence) for Yajus:

अर्थैकत्वादेकां वाक्यां साकाङ्क्षां चेद्विभागे स्यात् ।

arthaikatvādekaṃ vākyaṃ sākāṅkṣaṃ cedvibhāge syāt .

ekam vākyam = it will be a sentence, arthaikatvāt = if the parts thereof propose a single thing or denote a single meaning. vibhāge = another condition is that when parts are divided, sākāṅkṣam syāt cet = if the parts are found to be having mutual expectancy.

If a single thing is proposed or a single meaning is denoted and when separated, if the parts are found to expecting each other, then that is called a sentence / Yajus.

In fact, the above Sūtram of Jaimini is a definition of a Vākyam (sentence) and Mahāvākyam (discourse) as the term “padam” (word) is not incorporated in the Sūtram. Since it is difficult to decide as to what is the size of a Yajus Jaimini, the author of Vākyaśāstra (the system of sentence) offered a definition. But the same is useful not only in Vedic literature but also in secular literature.

11. Devatas

More than one hundred Devatas (deities) are there Kṛṣṇayajurveda.

Agni dominates the scene – out of the forty Adhyāyas (chapters), Agni is referred to in thirty-one Adhyāyas. By worshipping Agni one can kill his desires and can control his mind. All kinds of wealth can be achieved. The glow of body would increase. One can prevail upon his enemies.

Indra occupies the second place. He can provide wealth, would destroy enemies, protects the right / noble people, gives a comfortable life.

Savitā (Sun), Prajāpati, Vidvāṃsaḥ (literally scholars – here deities spreading education), Viśvadevāḥ, Yajña, Vāyu, Soma are some of the Devatas mentioned in Taittirīyasaṃhitā.

12. Ṛṣis

Ṛṣi or Mantradraṣṭa is the one who perceived the Mantra with Tapaśśakti (capacity achieved through ascetic life). A mantra or Śākha (branch) is named after a Ṛṣi, who perceived but not authored it. Veda is “Apauruṣeya” (not authored by human beings) and had emanated from Brahman. In Taittirīyasaṃhitā there are many Ṛṣis – Prajāpati, Gotama, Dīrghatama, Parameṣṭhi, Ātreya, Vāmadeva, Vasisṣṭha, Medhātithi, Kutsa, Viśvāmitra etc.

13. Yajurāraṇyakam

Unlike other Āraṇyakas, Yajurāraṇyaka (Praśna 2) prescribes and explains the performance of Nityakarmas (regular rites) –

i. Yajñopavītam (the sacred thread)

The popular “Svādhyāyabrāhmaṇam” i.e. the second Praśna (chapter) of Yajurāraṇyaka among other things explains the significance of Yajñopavītam –

यज्ञोपवीत्येवाधीयीत (यजुरारण्यकम् 2.1)

Yajñopavītyevādhīyīta (Yajurāraṇyakam 2.1)

One has to recite Veda donning Yajñopavītam only, i.e. one without Yajñopavītam should not recite Veda. “Upanayanam” is a rite that is performed to the boys of the first three Varṇas (castes), viz. Brāhmaṇa (eighth year from conception), Kṣatriya (eleventh year from conception) and Vaiśya (twelfth year from conception) and it is during the ceremony that the boy is given Yajñopavītam and he becomes Brahmacārī.

Those who are not entitled to Yajñopavītam and consequently cannot have access to Veda, such as striyaḥ (ladies) and Śūdras (the fourth caste) should learn Dharma with the help of Itihāsas (Rāmāyaṇa and Mahābhārata) and Purāṇas. Ladies, such as Gārgī, Maitreyī etc. who were Brahmavādinīs used to have Upanayanam etc. and had had access to Veda.

Yajñopavītam can be made of leather or cotton and would have three postures –

अद्वजनां वासो वा दद्विणत उपवीय दद्विणां बाहुमुद्धरते अवधत्ते सव्यद्वमद्वत, यज्ञोपवीतमेतदेव द्ववपरीतम् प्राचीनावीतां सांवीतां मानुषम् (ibid.)

ajinaṃ vāso vā dakṣiṇata upavīya dakṣiṇaṃ bāhumuddharate avadhatte savyamiti, yajñopavītametadeva viparītam prācīnāvītaṃ saṃvītaṃ mānuṣam (ibid.)

If the yajñopavītam is under the right hand, i.e. sitting on the left shoulder and hanging under the right hand then it is called Savyam, the opposite, i.e. sitting on the right shoulder and hanging under the left hand, it is called Prācīnāvītam (or Apasavyam) and if it is hanging from the neck it is called Saṃvītam (or nivītam).

Yajñopavītam should be Savyam while worshipping Gods, Prācīnāvītam while worshipping forefathers (mothers included) and Saṃvītam while being in a human activity, i.e. call of nature, sleep, sex etc.

ii. Kūṣmāṇḍahomam

Worship of Agni (fire) with Kūṣmāṇḍa (white pumpkin-gourd / Beninkasa cerifera) is recommended by Veda as a final Prāyaścittam (penance) for sins such as theft and Bhrūṇahatya (forced abortion / killing the foetus) –

कूष्माण्डैजुुहुयात् योऽपूत इव मन्येत यर्था स्तेनो यर्था भ्रूणहा

kūṣmāṇḍairjuhuyāt yo’pūta iva manyeta yathā steno yathā bhrūṇahā

iii. Pañcamahāyajñāḥ (the five regular great Yajñas)

“Patnī” (wife) is a significant term in Vedic culture – Pāṇini rules if there is connection between the husband and wife, through Yajña, then such a wife is called “Patnī” (patyurno yajñasaṃyoge. Pāṇinisūtram 4.1.33). The fact is that according to Veda wife is half of husband’s body – ardhāṅgī (“अधो वा एष आत्मनो यत्पत्नी” – तैद्वत्तरीयब्राह्मणम् ३.३.३.५। “ardho vā eṣa ātmano yatpatnī” – Taittirīyabrāhmaṇam 3.3.3.5). Sixth Adhyāya of Mīmāṃsādarśanam discusses and concludes – दम्पत्योः सहाद्वधकारः – dampatyoḥ sahādhikāraḥ – both wife and husband have got similar rights, i.e. neither is inferior / superior to the other, and they have to participate together in any activity. The term “Patnī” is being used in the case of other ladies, i.e. wives who are not participating in Yajña along with husbands, following some similarity – explains Patañjali in Mahābhāṣyam.

Devayajñaḥ (worship of Gods), Pitṛyajñaḥ (worship of departed fore-fathers), Bhūtayajñaḥ (worship of beings), Manuṣyayajñaḥ (worship of human beings) and Brahmayajñaḥ are the five great Yajñas (Pañcayajñas) which need to be performed regularly.

a. Devayajñaḥ – At least a single Samit (holy stick) has to be offered in fire (Agnihotra) and it is called Devayajña.

b. Pitṛyajñaḥ – Water has to be offered to departed forefathers, i.e. father, his father and the latter’s father, mother, her mother-in-law and the latter’s mother-in-law (Gurus, Ācāryas and other elders are also added by some people) by pronouncing their name and Gotra (each person would have any one of the seven sages as the origin of their clan and as such the person has got the Gotra named after the sage). This is called Pitṛyajña. When the Gotra is not known then he / she should embrace Kāśyapagotra as Veda says people have emerged from Kaśyapa – says Matsyapurāṇam.

c. Bhūtayajñaḥ – Offering “food”, called “Bali” to beings is called Bhūtayajñaḥ.

d. Manuṣyayajñaḥ – Giving food to a Brāhmaṇa (it can be more than one depending on the financial position and logistics) is called Manuṣyayajña.

e. Brahmayajñaḥ – Reciting at least a single Ṛk of Yajus or Sāma is called Brahmayajña.

पश्य वा एते महायज्ञाः सतद्वत प्रतायन्ते सतद्वत सद्वन्तष्ठन्ते देवयज्ञः द्वपतृयज्ञो भूतयज्ञो मनुष्ययज्ञो ब्रह्मयज्ञ इद्वत यदग्नौ जुहोत्यद्वप सद्वमधां तद्देवयज्ञस्सद्वन्तष्ठते यद्वत्पतृयज्ञः स्वधाकरोत्यप्यपः तद्वत्पतृ-यज्ञस्सद्वन्तष्ठते यद्भूतेभ्यो बद्विहरद्वत तद्भूतयज्ञस्सद्वन्तष्ठते तद्ब्राह्मणेभ्योऽन्नां ददाद्वत तन्मनुष्य-यज्ञस्सद्वन्तष्ठते यत्स्वाध्यायमधीयीतैकामप्यृचां यजुस्साम वा तद्ब्रह्मयज्ञस्सद्वन्तष्ठते (ibid. 2.10) 

paśya vā ete mahāyajñāḥ satati pratāyante satati santiṣṭhante devayajñaḥ pitṛyajño bhūtayajño manuṣyayajño brahmayajña iti yadagnau juhotyapi samidhaṃ taddevayajñassantiṣṭhate yatpitṛyajñaḥ svadhākarotyapyapaḥ tatpitṛyajñassantiṣṭhate yadbhūtebhyo baliṃ harati tadbhūtayajñassantiṣṭhate tadbrāhmaṇebhyo’nnaṃ dadāti tanmanuṣyayajñassantiṣṭhate yatsvādhyāyam-adhīyītaikāmapyṛcaṃ yajussāma vā tadbrahmayajñassantiṣṭhate (ibid. 2.10)

iv. Svādhyāyaḥ

Regular recitation of Veda is called Svādhyāya. Veda gives a lot of importance to Svādhyāya. One may do Svādhyāya in a village, or forest, during daytime or night, while walking or sitting or lying on bed and such a person will be having Puṇyam (opposite of sin / Pāpam) –

ग्रामे मनसा स्वाध्यायमधीयीत द्वदवा नक्तां वेद्वत ह स्माह शौच आह्नेय उतारण्येऽबि उत वाचोत द्वतष्ठन्नुत व्रजन्नुतासीन उत शयानोऽधीयीतैव स्वाध्यायां तपस्वी पुण्यो भवद्वत (ibid. 2.12)

grāme manasā svādhyāyamadhīyīta divā naktaṃ veti ha smāha śauca āhneya utāraṇye’bala uta vācota tiṣṭhannuta vrajannutāsīna uta śayāno’dhīyītaiva svādhyāyaṃ tapasvī puṇyo bhavati (ibid. 2.12)

v. Anadhyāyaḥ (times not suitable for Svādhyāya)

य एवां द्वविान् मेघे वषुद्वत द्ववद्योतमाने स्तनयत्यवस्फूजुद्वत पवमाने वायौ अमावास्याया स्वाध्यायायमधीते तप एव तत्तप्यते (ibid. 2.14)

ya evaṃ vidvān meghe varṣati vidyotamāne stanayatyavasphūrjati pavamāne vāyau amāvāsyāyāṃ svādhyāyāyamadhīte tapa eva tattapyate (ibid. 2.14)

The scholar’s Tapas would be burnt if he recites Veda – while it is raining, there is lightning in the sky, sounds emanating from clouds, there are thunders, rush of air and the day of Amāvāsyā (new moon day). So during rainy season there will be frequent hurdles for Svādhyāya.

Initially, Veda restricted Amāvāsyā only as the Tithi (date) for Anadhyāya. Later, Smṛtis added both Pratipats (first day of Śuklapakṣa and Kṛṣṇapakṣa – the white fortnight and black fortnight), Aṣṭamis (eighth day of both Pakṣas), both caturdaśis (fourteenth day of both Pakṣas) and Pūrṇīmā (full moon day) making it an eight-day Anadhyāya per month. We may call them Vedic holidays. If one studies on the anadhyayana days, the knowledge acquired is believed not to be firm. In the Sundarakāṇḍa of Rāmāyaṇa, Sītā is described as being “as weak as the knowledge of somebody who is used to studying on Pratipat”

प्रद्वतपत्पाठशीशीिस्य द्ववद्येव तनुताां गता ॥ ५.५९.३१ ॥

pratipatpāṭhaśīlasya vidyeva tanutāṃ gatā 5.59.31

tanutām gatā = [Sītā] was emaciated, iva = like, vidyā = the knowledge pratipatpāṭhaśīlasya = of somebody in the habit of studying on Pratipat

Sita (who is slender by nature, was further weakened by the separation from Rāma and) was emaciated like the knowledge of one who studies on the first day of the bright and dark fortnights.

vi. Abode of all Devatas

Veda rules that all the Gods make a Brāhmaṇa, who knows Veda, their abode and therefore one should salute such a person and should not speak bad about them, they only satisfy the Devatas –

यावद्वतवै देवतास्तास्सवाु वेदद्ववद्वद ब्राह्मणे वसद्वन्त तस्माद्ब्राह्मणेभ्यो वेदद्ववद्भ्यो द्वदवे द्वदवे नमस्कुयाुन्नाश्लीिां कीतुयेदेता एव देवताः प्रीणाद्वत (ibd. 2.15) 

yāvatirvai devatāstāssarvā vedavidi brāhmaṇe vasanti tasmādbrāhmaṇebhyo vedavidbhyo dive dive namaskuryānnāślīlaṃ kīrtayedetā eva devatāḥ prīṇāti (ibd. 2.15)

vii. Aruṇam

The first Praśna (chapter) of Yajurāraṇyakam is popular as Aruṇam, that is used for attaining health. This is the lengthiest Praśna of all the Vedas and consists of one hundred and thirty Anuvākas.

The famous Mantrapuṣpam (योऽपाां पुष्पां वेद etc. – yo’pāṃ puṣpaṃ veda etc.) is from Aruṇam only (Taittirīyāraṇyakam, 1.78-84). There are Mantras in this Praśna that have got medicinal value – the water, purified with these Mantras is given to pregnant ladies for easy delivery. Ladies with early days of pregnancy should not hear these Mantras as they cause abortion –

(अपक्रामत गद्वभुण्यः) अष्टयोनीमष्टपुत्राम्। . . . अर्थ पुरुषः सप्तपुरुषः (यर्थास्थानां गद्वभुण्यः)

(apakrāmata garbhiṇyaḥ) aṣṭayonīmaṣṭaputrām. . . . atha puruṣaḥ saptapuruṣaḥ (yathāsthānaṃ garbhiṇyaḥ) Taittirīyāraṇyakam, 1.61-63

viii. Daśa Śāntis

The popular Daśaśāntis (ten Anuvākas meant for peace) are here in Taittirīyāraṇyakam. In one of the Anuvākas, i.e. starting with शां नो वातः पवताम् (śaṃ no vātaḥ pavatām), Śānti is expected from earth, space, heaven, directions, corners, fire, air, Sun, Moon, stars, water, herbs, Vanaspati (trees bearing fruits without blossoms), cow, goat, horse, person, Brahman and Brāhmaṇa –

पृद्वर्थवी शाद्वन्तरन्तद्वरि शाद्वन्तद्यौश्शाद्वन्तद्वदिशश्शाद्वन्तरवान्तरद्वदशाश्शाद्वन्तरद्वग्नश्शाद्वन्तवाुयुश्शाद्वन्त-राद्वदत्यश्शाद्वन्तश्चन्द्रश्शाद्वन्तनुित्राद्वण शाद्वन्तरापश्शाद्वन्तरोषधयश्शाद्वन्तवुनस्पतयश्शाद्वन्तगौश्शद्वन्त-रजा शाद्वन्तरश्वश्शाद्वन्तः पुरुषश्शाद्वन्तब्रुह्म शाद्वन्तब्राुह्मणाश्शाद्वन्तश्शाद्वन्तरेव शाद्वन्तश्शाद्वन्तमे अस्तु शाद्वन्तः (तैद्वत्तरीयारण्यकम्, ४.४२)

pṛthivī śāntirantarikṣaṃ śāntirdyauśśāntirdiśaśśāntiravāntaradiśāśśāntiragniśśāntirvāyuśśāntirādityaśśāntiścandraśśāntirnakṣatrāṇi śāntirāpaśśāntiroṣadhayaśśāntirvanaspatayaśśāntirgauśśanti-rajā śāntiraśvaśśāntiḥ puruṣaśśāntirbrahma śāntirbrāhmaṇāśśāntiśśāntireva śāntiśśāntirme astu śāntiḥ

(taittirīyāraṇyakam, 4.42)

14. Upaveda

Dhanurveda (Archery) is the Upaveda (sub-veda) of Yajurveda. Four kinds of weapons viz., Muktaka, Amuktaka, Muktāmuktaka and Yantramuktaka, are described in the Upaveda. Use and withdrawing of missiles such as Brāhma, Vaiṣṇava, Pāśupata, Prājāpatya, Āgneya, are also detailed in Dhanurveda. It consists of four parts.

Bibliography

Ṛgvedasaṃhitā, Nag Prakashak, Delhi, 1994.

Ṛgarthasāra, Dinakarabhaṭṭa, Vol. I, The Sanskrit Academy, Hyderabad, 1959.

Ārṣavijñānasarvasvamu (Telugu), Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams, Tirupati, 1993.

Vedabhāṣyabhūmikāsaṅgrahaḥ, Sāyaṇācāṛya, Chowkhamba, Varanasi, 1985.

Pūrvamīmāṃsādarśanam, Ed. Vasudeva Abhyankar, Ambadas Joshi, Anandasrama Samskrita Granthavali, Poona, 1976.

Śuklayajurvedasaṃhitā, Gaṅgaviṣṇu, Lakshmivenkateswara Steam Press, Bombay, 1857.

Kṛṣṇayajurveda-taittirīyasaṃhitā, Ed. Kasinatha Sastri, Anandasrama Samskrita Granthavali, Poona, 1978.

Āpastambaparibhāṣāsūtra, Ed. by A. Mahādeva Śāstri, Government Branch Press, Mysore, 1893.

Taittirīya-Kṛṣṇayajurvedīya-Āraṇyakopaniṣad, Corporation Press, Mysore, 1980.

Rāmāyaṇa, with three commentaries: Tilaka, Śiromaṇi and Bhūṣaṇa. Edited by K. Srinivasa Sastri, Gujarati Press, Bombay, 1912.

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