By Gururaj Mutalik
The Concept of Engagement without Entanglement — Karma-Yoga.
A crucial moment in the divine dialogue between Arjuna, the warrior in perplexity, and Sri Krishna, has arrived. To bring Arjuna to a state of emotional stability, Sri Krishna described to him the true nature of the self, or the soul, and, the perishable nature of the body. Having succeeded in this, Sri Krishna broached the fundamental principles of Swa-Dharma, or the specific duty assigned to an individual. He termed this precious knowledge the Samkhya, and explained the means of attaining it—Yoga. He further emphasized that it is not enough to perform this duty; for the right outcome, it must be performed with the proper frame of mind, and attitude; Sri Krishna unfolded this in the concept of Sthita-prajna. Arjuna’s response appeared encouraging, as he further probed Sri Krishna, asking him to explain the challenging facets of a steady state of mind, Sthita-prajna state. Suddenly at this point Arjuna was engulfed by yet another wave of confusion. He turned to his friend and said, “If the steady state of mind, borne out of a subtle state of mind is our aim, why are you asking me to engage myself in this terrible act of war? Am I not going to be better off by focusing all my energies in attaining this steady state of Sthita prajnata, which requires this uplifting knowledge of Samkhya? It appears, Sri Krishna, you are bewildering me with confusing, and contradictory notions. I plead with you, just tell me, decisively, that one thing by which I can attain true enlightenment.” Sri Krishna in his divine wisdom, responded, and told his friend and disciple, “There are two kinds of disciplines to be practiced by people with two different proclivities: Samkhya-Yoga, for those who seek liberation through knowledge; and Karma-Yoga, or the discipline of righteous action, for those who are suited for such actions. Obviously, Arjuna, being a Kshatriya, and a great warrior at that, you are supremely fitted for the latter category, namely, seeking your salvation through purposeful action—action without consideration of fruits (3.1–3.3)[i].
By merely forsaking actions that fall to his lot, one cannot attain freedom from action, nor by renouncement of such actions can one attain the cherished goals (3.4 ) [ii].
In this world, there is no one who can live without engaging in activity, even for a moment. Each one’s nature, determined by past actions, among others, compels everyone to act according to such innate action (3.5) [iii].
One who inhibits his organs of action, but at the same time, is unable to avoid engagement of the mind with sense objects, can only be termed a deluded one, full of hypocrisy (3.6) [iv].
My dear Arjuna, one who controls the senses with singular focus on his self, indeed succeeds in doing his duties according to the Shastras . This is the essence of Karma-Yoga where all the duties are performed for the sake of the higher self (Paramatma). Indeed, such a person is superior (3.7)[v] .
Action is indeed superior to inaction. Even the basic sustenance of body is made impossible by total inaction. Therefore, perform your duties assigned by the Shastras that suit your nature, and the present state of your life (3.8) [vi] .
Sri Krishna introduces at this point yet another dimension of the concept of Karma-Yoga, namely Yajna, or the framework of sacrifice in which all actions take place. He says, “All actions lead to entanglement if not conceived as acts of sacrifice, done for the sake of worshipping the Supreme. It is for that purpose, Arjuna, without getting entangled, that you perform your duties.” (3-9) [vii].
In the very beginning, Praja-pati (Brahma) came into being. As an act of supreme sacrifice, he enabled sentient souls to come into being, with their bodies. Praja-pati blessed them with these words: “It is through Yajna, the acts of sacrifice, that you shall prosper.” (3-10)[viii] .
These acts of sacrifice symbolize the worship of various gods, and in turn, these gods will grant your wishes, and facilitate the fulfillment of whatever you want. Such mutual support will lead to one’s progress ( 3-11)[ix] .
Thus, these enlightened souls (gods), by propitiation of sacrifice, enable one to fulfill the first three Purusharthas: Dharma, Artha, and Kama; thereby indirectly enabling and empowering one to attain final liberation. One who departs from this path, and gains his desires without any act of sacrifice, is verily a robber! (3-12)[x] .
The truth is that those who sacrifice to the Supreme, and enjoy what is allotted to them, are impervious to all sins. But those who act and enjoy on their own, without any sacrifice, incur great sin (3.13) [xi].
Having explained the subtle principles of sacrifice, which is difficult to comprehend owing to its intricate, symbolic nature, Sri Krishna explains to Arjuna the law of the universal cycle of Karma.
It is food that leads all creatures to be born, and sustained. In turn, food depends upon timely rain. Truly, rain comes from acts of sacrifice. Sacrifice depends upon various activities. This is the universal cycle (3.14)[xii] .
Gita: 3.14 The universal cycle that sustains life on earth
The entire philosophy of duty and rightful activity is derived from the core of Vedic teaching. The Vedas themselves manifest as the voice of Para-Brahman. Thus, Yajna as a process, is rooted in Para-Brahman, only; this is how the preservation of the universal cycle is crucially important for life on earth. The lives of those who fulfill their pleasures with sense objects, and rejoice in sin are void of any meaning (3.15, 3.16)[ii] .
This is another pivotal verse (which must be understood in the correct perspective) underlining the obviousness of the connection between living beings, food, and the rains. Life on earth depends on the food supply—food being a necessary ingredient for living. Basic food production largely depends upon rain (water). In nature, rain itself depends upon the presence and preservation of the natural environment, such as the vast vegetation on earth, and the vegetable kingdom, in general. The preservation of the vegetable kingdom depends upon the acts of living beings. For instance, the wanton destruction of forest and trees necessarily leads to arid conditions that interrupt the timely occurrence of rains. In order to ensure their collective sustenance, the collective activity of living beings necessitates prudent sacrifice on their part; this sacrifice preserves the life-giving environment, as well. In the modern world, we are experiencing vast destruction of the environment, which has led to the inevitable phenomenon of global warming, and severe climate change, hence, our own experience highlights the profound wisdom of this concept.
Parenthetically, Oh Arjuna, for one who has reached a sublime status, is entirely engaged with self, contented with self-absorption, and thus is self-realized, the prescribed duties do not apply (3.17) [iii] .
Such a person will have no concern for what is done, or not done, as he depends entirely upon the grace of Paramatma for his whole being (3.18)[iv] .
The essence of this doctrine is that one should perform one’s prescribed duties wholeheartedly, without any entanglement, always surrendering the fruit of one’s actions to the Supreme, and eventually attaining Him (3.19)[v]
King Janaka is a supreme example of a Karma-Yogi, one who attaines self-realization through righteous actions. When one follows the example set by Janaka, performing duties in the right way, one can also guide other seekers on the path of righteousness (3.20) [vi].
Such a leadership role in offering guidance to deserving people is important, because actions performed at a high level are always emulated by others (3.21)[vii] .
Take my own example, Oh Arjuna. In all the three worlds (Universe), I do not have a prescribed duty. Nor do I have any interest in being Lord of All, or in obtaining anything. Yet I constatly engage in the act of creation, sustenance, and ending it all to begin again (3.22) [viii].
Being Paramatma, if I do not engage in these primordial activities, surely Arjuna, the people of the world would follow my example. That would be disastrous (3.23) [ix].
It would be disastrous if I cease to work, because all creation in the world would end (3.24) [x].
The welfare of the society would only result from the enlightened acts of the wise, working without attachment, while the ignorant would only continue to work to fulfill their desire, attached to the fruits of their action ( 3.25)[xi]
The enlightened person should inspire by an example of engagement without entanglement. However, it is not for him to confuse the mind of the ignorant (3.26) [xii].
Another pivotal concept is unfolded at this point. Normally, when people are engaged in work, they are compelled in whatever they are doing by the proclivity of their nature—the three Gunas: Satva, Rajas, and Tamas. However, they live in the delusion that they themselves are performing their activities. (This paradigm suggests that in normal day-to-day life, there is but little freewill for ordianry people to escape their natures.) (3.27) [xiii].
It is precisely for this reason that the enlightened ones who know the truth about the relationship between actions, and the driving Gunas (the proclivity of nature), choose to engage without being entangled ( 3.28) [xiv].
When enlightened persons deal with the ignorant ones, they should refrain from dispelling the ignorance. Instead, they should understand that the ignorant ones, due to their imperfect nature, and faulty understanding, are always attached to the fruits of the activites, according to their natural proclivities ( 3.29) [xv].
As for you, Arjuna, surrender all your activities to me in the light of spiritual wisdom; liberate yourself from all the desires and attachments; shed your anguish and grief. Rise up as a warrior to do your prescribed duty (3.30)[xvi] .
This is the concpet of Karma-Yoga. Those who practice this teaching with faith and devotion, without malice, will surely be liberated from entanglement with their Karma (3.31)[xvii] .
On the other hand, those who ignore this perennial teaching, and are not even motivated to try and practice it, are not only devoid of any sense or knowledge, they are lost! (3.32) [xviii] .
Believe me, Arjuna, everyone follows their natural proclivity. Even the wise are not immune from their nature. Therefore, repression of any kind is of no use (3.33) [xix].
A word of warning! Beware of two terrible afflictions: infatuation with sense objects, and hatred arising out of attachment; these are the great hurdles that come in the way of Self-Realization (3.34) [xx].
Arjuna, one’s salvation lies in Swa-Dharma, one’s prescribed duties. What is alien to one’s own being is indeed frightful. It is better to stay anchored to one’s Swa-Dharma, and give up one’s life, than to dangerously embrace what is alien to you (3.35)[xxi] .
At this point of Sri Krishna and Arjuna’s dialogue, it is evident that the force of logic, and Sri Krishna’s precision of expression in resolving Arjuna’s doubts are such that Arjuna appears to be convinced. He still wonders: Why do people commit sins? Why do they stray from the path of righteousness, and the prescribed line of duty? Therefore, he asks Sri Krishna, “What is the force, Sri Krishna, by which men commit sins, even if they don’t want to? What is the power that forces them to depart from the path of righteousness?” (3.36) [xxii] .
Sri Krishna explains that it is deadly desire, and terrible anger; both of which are related to each other, and arise out of the interplay of the three modes of nature, and in particular, out of the Rajas (the materialistic, and egotistic quality). ( Sri Aurobindo calls it kinetic.) This mode of nature leads to an all-devouring passion, resulting in a variety of sinful acts. Thus, desire, and the resultant anger are one’s greatest enemies (3.37)[xxiii] .
Like a mountain covered with smoke, a mirror coated with dust, or an embryo wrapped in the amniotic membrane, the knowledge that the soul possesses is totally obscured by the deadly desire, or Kama (3.38) [xxiv] .
True knowledge that leads to self-awareness of the soul is distorted by the ever-insatiable fire of Kama, the deadly desire. This is the eternal enemy of the enlightened (3.39)[xxv] .
Kama pervades the senses, the mind, and intellect. Obscuring true knowledge, Kama bewilders the embodied soul (3.40)[xxvi].
Therefore, first and foremeost, control the senses, and get rid of this destroyer of knowledge, and enlightenment (3.41) [xxvii].
The sense organs are lower in the order of hierarchy. Next is the mind. Higher than the mind is the intellect. Transcending the intellect is the spark of Paramatma inherent in the soul (3.42) [xxviii].
The supreme task before you, Oh Arjuna, by knowing this, is to control your mind by the intellect (guided by your inner spark). Using this enlightened knowledge, annihilate this mighty enemy, Kama ( 3.43) [xxix].
[i] अर्जुन उवाच |
ज्यायसी चेत्कर्मणस्ते मता बुद्धिर्जनार्दन | तत्किं कर्मणि घोरे मां नियोजयसि केशव ||३- १||
arjuna uvāca |
jyāyasī cētkarmaṇastē matā buddhirjanārdana |
tatkiṁ karmaṇi ghōrē māṁ niyōjayasi kēśava ||3- 1||
व्यामिश्रेणेव वाक्येन बुद्धिं मोहयसीव मे | तदेकं वद निश्चित्य येन श्रेयोऽहमाप्नुयाम् ||३- २||
vyāmiśrēṇēva vākyēna buddhiṁ mōhayasīva mē |
tadēkaṁ vada niścitya yēna śrēyō:’hamāpnuyām ||3- 2||
लोकेऽस्मिन् द्विविधा निष्ठा पुरा प्रोक्ता मयानघ |
ज्ञानयोगेन साङ्ख्यानां कर्मयोगेन योगिनाम् ||३- ३||
lōkē:’smin dvividhā niṣṭhā purā prōktā mayānagha |
jñānayōgēna sāṅkhyānāṁ karmayōgēna yōginām ||3- 3||
[ii] न कर्मणामनारम्भान्नैष्कर्म्यं पुरुषोऽश्नुते |
न च संन्यसनादेव सिद्धिं समधिगच्छति ||३- ४||
na karmaṇāmanārambhānnaiṣkarmyaṁ puruṣō:’śnutē |
na ca saṁnyasanādēva siddhiṁ samadhigacchati ||3- 4||
[iii] न हि कश्चित्क्षणमपि जातु तिष्ठत्यकर्मकृत् |
कार्यते ह्यवशः कर्म सर्वः प्रकृतिजैर्गुणैः ||३- ५||
na hi kaścitkṣaṇamapi jātu tiṣṭhatyakarmakr̥t |
kāryatē hyavaśaḥ karma sarvaḥ prakr̥tijairguṇaiḥ ||3- 5||
[iv] कर्मेन्द्रियाणि संयम्य य आस्ते मनसा स्मरन् |
इन्द्रियार्थान्विमूढात्मा मिथ्याचारः स उच्यते ||३- ६||
karmēndriyāṇi saṁyamya ya āstē manasā smaran |
indriyārthānvimūḍhātmā mithyācāraḥ sa ucyatē ||3- 6||
[v] यस्त्विन्द्रियाणि मनसा नियम्यारभतेऽर्जुन |
कर्मेन्द्रियैः कर्मयोगमसक्तः स विशिष्यते ||३- ७||
yastvindriyāṇi manasā niyamyārabhatē:’rjuna |
karmēndriyaiḥ karmayōgamasaktaḥ sa viśiṣyatē ||3- 7||
[vi] नियतं कुरु कर्म त्वं कर्म ज्यायो ह्यकर्मणः |
शरीरयात्रापि च ते न प्रसिद्ध्येदकर्मणः ||३- ८||
niyataṁ kuru karma tvaṁ karma jyāyō hyakarmaṇaḥ |
śarīrayātrāpi ca tē na prasiddhyēdakarmaṇaḥ ||3- 8||
[vii] यज्ञार्थात्कर्मणोऽन्यत्र लोकोऽयं कर्मबन्धनः |
तदर्थं कर्म कौन्तेय मुक्तसङ्गः समाचर ||३- ९||
yajñārthātkarmaṇō:’nyatra lōkō:’yaṁ karmabandhanaḥ |
tadarthaṁ karma kauntēya muktasaṅgaḥ samācara ||3- 9||
[viii] सहयज्ञाः प्रजाः सृष्ट्वा पुरोवाच प्रजापतिः |
अनेन प्रसविष्यध्वमेष वोऽस्त्विष्टकामधुक् ||३- १०||
sahayajñāḥ prajāḥ sr̥ṣṭvā purōvāca prajāpatiḥ |
anēna prasaviṣyadhvamēṣa vō:’stviṣṭakāmadhuk ||3- 10||
[ix] देवान्भावयतानेन ते देवा भावयन्तु वः |
परस्परं भावयन्तः श्रेयः परमवाप्स्यथ ||३- ११||
dēvānbhāvayatānēna tē dēvā bhāvayantu vaḥ |
parasparaṁ bhāvayantaḥ śrēyaḥ paramavāpsyatha ||3- 11||
[x] इष्टान्भोगान्हि वो देवा दास्यन्ते यज्ञभाविताः |
तैर्दत्तानप्रदायैभ्यो यो भुङ्क्ते स्तेन एव सः ||३- १२||
iṣṭānbhōgānhi vō dēvā dāsyantē yajñabhāvitāḥ |
tairdattānapradāyaibhyō yō bhuṅktē stēna ēva saḥ ||3- 12||
[xi] यज्ञशिष्टाशिनः सन्तो मुच्यन्ते सर्वकिल्बिषैः |
भुञ्जते ते त्वघं पापा ये पचन्त्यात्मकारणात् ||३- १३||
yajñaśiṣṭāśinaḥ santō mucyantē sarvakilbiṣaiḥ |
bhuñjatē tē tvaghaṁ pāpā yē pacantyātmakāraṇāt ||3- 13||
[xii] अन्नाद्भवन्ति भूतानि पर्जन्यादन्नसम्भवः |
यज्ञाद्भवति पर्जन्यो यज्ञः कर्मसमुद्भवः ||३- १४||
yajñaḥ karmasamudbhavaḥ ||3- 14||
[ii] कर्म ब्रह्मोद्भवं विद्धि ब्रह्माक्षरसमुद्भवम् |
तस्मात्सर्वगतं ब्रह्म नित्यं यज्ञे प्रतिष्ठितम् ||३- १५||
karma brahmōdbhavaṁ viddhi
tasmātsarvagataṁ brahma nityaṁ
yajñē pratiṣṭhitam ||3- 15||
एवं प्रवर्तितं चक्रं नानुवर्तयतीह यः |
अघायुरिन्द्रियारामो मोघं पार्थ स जीवति ||३- १६||
ēvaṁ pravartitaṁ cakraṁ nānuvartayatīha yaḥ |
aghāyurindriyārāmō mōghaṁ pārtha sa jīvati ||3- 16||
[iii] यस्त्वात्मरतिरेव स्यादात्मतृप्तश्च मानवः |
आत्मन्येव च सन्तुष्टस्तस्य कार्यं न विद्यते ||३- १७||
yastvātmaratirēva syādātmatr̥ptaśca mānavaḥ |
ātmanyēva ca santuṣṭastasya kāryaṁ na vidyatē ||3- 17||
[iv] नैव तस्य कृतेनार्थो नाकृतेनेह कश्चन |
न चास्य सर्वभूतेषु कश्चिदर्थव्यपाश्रयः ||३- १८||
naiva tasya kr̥tēnārthō nākr̥tēnēha kaścana |
na cāsya sarvabhūtēṣu kaścidarthavyapāśrayaḥ ||3- 18||
[v] तस्मादसक्तः सततं कार्यं कर्म समाचर |
असक्तो ह्याचरन्कर्म परमाप्नोति पूरुषः ||३- १९||
tasmādasaktaḥ satataṁ kāryaṁ karma samācara |
asaktō hyācarankarma paramāpnōti pūruṣaḥ ||3- 19||
[vi] कर्मणैव हि संसिद्धिमास्थिता जनकादयः |
लोकसंग्रहमेवापि सम्पश्यन्कर्तुमर्हसि ||३- २०||
karmaṇaiva hi saṁsiddhimāsthitā janakādayaḥ |
lōkasaṁgrahamēvāpi sampaśyankartumarhasi ||3- 20||
[vii] यद्यदाचरति श्रेष्ठस्तत्तदेवेतरो जनः |
स यत्प्रमाणं कुरुते लोकस्तदनुवर्तते ||३- २१||
yadyadācarati śrēṣṭhastattadēvētarō janaḥ |
sa yatpramāṇaṁ kurutē lōkastadanuvartatē ||3- 21||
[viii] न मे पार्थास्ति कर्तव्यं त्रिषु लोकेषु किञ्चन |
नानवाप्तमवाप्तव्यं वर्त एव च कर्मणि ||३- २२||
na mē pārthāsti kartavyaṁ triṣu lōkēṣu kiñcana |
nānavāptamavāptavyaṁ varta ēva ca karmaṇi ||3- 22||
[ix] यदि ह्यहं न वर्तेयं जातु कर्मण्यतन्द्रितः |
मम वर्त्मानुवर्तन्ते मनुष्याः पार्थ सर्वशः ||३- २३||
yadi hyahaṁ na vartēyaṁ jātu karmaṇyatandritaḥ |
mama vartmānuvartantē manuṣyāḥ pārtha sarvaśaḥ ||3- 23||
[x] उत्सीदेयुरिमे लोका न कुर्यां कर्म चेदहम् |
सङ्करस्य च कर्ता स्यामुपहन्यामिमाः प्रजाः ||३- २४||
utsīdēyurimē lōkā na kuryāṁ karma cēdaham |
saṅkarasya ca kartā syāmupahanyāmimāḥ prajāḥ ||3- 24||
[xi] सक्ताः कर्मण्यविद्वांसो यथा कुर्वन्ति भारत |
कुर्याद्विद्वांस्तथासक्तश्चिकीर्षुर्लोकसंग्रहम् ||३- २५||
saktāḥ karmaṇyavidvāṁsō yathā kurvanti bhārata | kuryādvidvāṁstathāsaktaścikīrṣurlōkasaṁgraham ||3- 25||
[xii] न बुद्धिभेदं जनयेदज्ञानां कर्मसङ्गिनाम् |
जोषयेत्सर्वकर्माणि विद्वान्युक्तः समाचरन् ||३- २६||
na buddhibhēdaṁ janayēdajñānāṁ karmasaṅginām |
jōṣayētsarvakarmāṇi vidvānyuktaḥ samācaran ||3- 26||
[xiii] प्रकृतेः क्रियमाणानि गुणैः कर्माणि सर्वशः |
अहङ्कारविमूढात्मा कर्ताहमिति मन्यते ||३- २७||
prakr̥tēḥ kriyamāṇāni guṇaiḥ karmāṇi sarvaśaḥ |
ahaṅkāravimūḍhātmā kartāhamiti manyatē ||3- 27||
[xiv] तत्त्ववित्तु महाबाहो गुणकर्मविभागयोः |
गुणा गुणेषु वर्तन्त इति मत्वा न सज्जते ||३- २८||
tattvavittu mahābāhō guṇakarmavibhāgayōḥ |
guṇā guṇēṣu vartanta iti matvā na sajjatē ||3- 28||
[xv] प्रकृतेर्गुणसम्मूढाः सज्जन्ते गुणकर्मसु |
तानकृत्स्नविदो मन्दान्कृत्स्नविन्न विचालयेत् ||३- २९||
prakr̥tērguṇasammūḍhāḥ sajjantē guṇakarmasu |
tānakr̥tsnavidō mandānkr̥tsnavinna vicālayēt ||3- 29||
[xvi] मयि सर्वाणि कर्माणि संन्यस्याध्यात्मचेतसा |
निराशीर्निर्ममो भूत्वा युध्यस्व विगतज्वरः ||३- ३०||
mayi sarvāṇi karmāṇi saṁnyasyādhyātmacētasā |
nirāśīrnirmamō bhūtvā yudhyasva vigatajvaraḥ ||3- 30||
[xvii] ये मे मतमिदं नित्यमनुतिष्ठन्ति मानवाः |
श्रद्धावन्तोऽनसूयन्तो मुच्यन्ते तेऽपि कर्मभिः ||३- ३१||
yē mē matamidaṁ nityamanutiṣṭhanti mānavāḥ |
śraddhāvantō:’nasūyantō mucyantē tē:’pi karmabhiḥ ||3- 31||
[xviii] ये त्वेतदभ्यसूयन्तो नानुतिष्ठन्ति मे मतम् |
सर्वज्ञानविमूढांस्तान्विद्धि नष्टानचेतसः ||३- ३२||
yē tvētadabhyasūyantō nānutiṣṭhanti mē matam |
sarvajñānavimūḍhāṁstānviddhi naṣṭānacētasaḥ ||3- 32||
[xix] सदृशं चेष्टते स्वस्याः प्रकृतेर्ज्ञानवानपि |
प्रकृतिं यान्ति भूतानि निग्रहः किं करिष्यति ||३- ३३||
sadr̥śaṁ cēṣṭatē svasyāḥ prakr̥tērjñānavānapi |
prakr̥tiṁ yānti bhūtāni nigrahaḥ kiṁ kariṣyati ||3- 33||
[xx] इन्द्रियस्येन्द्रियस्यार्थे रागद्वेषौ व्यवस्थितौ |
तयोर्न वशमागच्छेत्तौ ह्यस्य परिपन्थिनौ ||३- ३४||
indriyasyēndriyasyārthē rāgadvēṣau vyavasthitau |
tayōrna vaśamāgacchēttau hyasya paripanthinau ||3- 34||
[xxi] श्रेयान्स्वधर्मो विगुणः परधर्मात्स्वनुष्ठितात् |
स्वधर्मे निधनं श्रेयः परधर्मो भयावहः ||३- ३५||
svadharmē nidhanaṁ śrēyaḥ
paradharmō bhayāvahaḥ ||3- 35||
[xxii] अर्जुन उवाच |
अथ केन प्रयुक्तोऽयं पापं चरति पूरुषः |
अनिच्छन्नपि वार्ष्णेय बलादिव नियोजितः ||३- ३६||
arjuna uvāca |
atha kēna prayuktō:’yaṁ pāpaṁ carati pūruṣaḥ |
anicchannapi vārṣṇēya balādiva niyōjitaḥ ||3- 36||
[xxiii] श्रीभगवानुवाच |
काम एष क्रोध एष रजोगुणसमुद्भवः |
महाशनो महापाप्मा विद्ध्येनमिह वैरिणम् ||३- ३७||
kāma ēṣa krōdha ēṣa rajōguṇasamudbhavaḥ |
mahāśanō mahāpāpmā viddhyēnamiha vairiṇam ||3- 37||
[xxiv] धूमेनाव्रियते वह्निर्यथादर्शो मलेन च |
यथोल्बेनावृतो गर्भस्तथा तेनेदमावृतम् ||३- ३८||
dhūmēnāvriyatē vahniryathādarśō malēna ca |
yathōlbēnāvr̥tō garbhastathā tēnēdamāvr̥tam ||3- 38||
[xxv] आवृतं ज्ञानमेतेन ज्ञानिनो नित्यवैरिणा |
कामरूपेण कौन्तेय दुष्पूरेणानलेन च ||३- ३९||
āvr̥taṁ jñānamētēna jñāninō nityavairiṇā |
kāmarūpēṇa kauntēya duṣpūrēṇānalēna ca ||3- 39||
[xxvi] इन्द्रियाणि मनो बुद्धिरस्याधिष्ठानमुच्यते |
एतैर्विमोहयत्येष ज्ञानमावृत्य देहिनम् ||३- ४०||
indriyāṇi manō buddhirasyādhiṣṭhānamucyatē
ētairvimōhayatyēṣa jñānamāvr̥tya dēhinam ||3- 40||
[xxvii] तस्मात्त्वमिन्द्रियाण्यादौ नियम्य भरतर्षभ |
पाप्मानं प्रजहि ह्येनं ज्ञानविज्ञाननाशनम् ||३- ४१||
tasmāttvamindriyāṇyādau niyamya bharatarṣabha |
pāpmānaṁ prajahi hyēnaṁ jñānavijñānanāśanam ||3- 41||
[xxviii] इन्द्रियाणि पराण्याहुरिन्द्रियेभ्यः परं मनः |
मनसस्तु परा बुद्धिर्यो बुद्धेः परतस्तु सः ||३- ४२||
indriyāṇi parāṇyāhurindriyēbhyaḥ paraṁ manaḥ |
manasastu parā buddhiryō buddhēḥ paratastu saḥ ||3- 42||
[xxix] एवं बुद्धेः परं बुद्ध्वा संस्तभ्यात्मानमात्मना |
जहि शत्रुं महाबाहो कामरूपं दुरासदम् ||३- ४३||
ēvaṁ buddhēḥ paraṁ buddhvā saṁstabhyātmānamātmanā |
jahi śatruṁ mahābāhō kāmarūpaṁ durāsadam ||3- 43||
This section ‘Concepts in Bhagavad-Gita will be serialized with other important concepts to follow’ periodically.