Twin Streams of Hinduism

Agama and Nigama

By Dr. Prabhakar Apte


Dr. Prabhakar Apte.


Hinduism is an English word denoting the state of being a Hindu. The land of Hindus was recognized by westerners as India. Muslim countries named it as Hindostan. Earliest reference to it is found in 10 books on Architecture by Vitruvius (circa 1st C. B.C.) as Inde. In Sanskrit literature, the word Hindu is conspicuous by absence. However, in historical records the word ‘Hindusthan’ is common in medieval times. Chatrapatī Śivājī called his kingdom as ‘Hindu Patapātaśāhi’. Guru Govind Singh proclaimed his motto as ‘Dharma Hindu Gāje. Sakala Bhanda Bhāje’. Apparently, the people beyond Indus valley named its residences as Hindus by corrupt pronunciation using Hindu for Sindhu. Hindu numerals borrowed by Arabs in 1st millennium A.D. were named by them as Hindsa. In last century, Svātantryavīr Savarkar gave precise definition of the term Hindu as | | (  Sindhu sindhu-paryanta yasya Bhārata bhūmikā| pitrubhūḥ punyabhūścaiva sa vai Hinduriti smṛtaḥ) meaning ‘that person is deemed to be Hindu, to whom this land of Bhārata is both paternal land as well as holy land’. Thus a Hindu is tested on two categories: paternal heritage and sentimental sanctity. Consequently, for citizens of many

Buddhist countries, Bhārata is holy land but not paternal land. The word Hindu is to be taken in federal connotation, encompassing entire Humanity.

The Tradition of Nigama and Gama:

In our tradition, the religious-cultural heritage is known to be Nigama- gamatmaka I. e. comprising twin currents: Nigama and  gama.
gama Dharma

It denotes that stream, which is rooted in ‘Mandirāntargata Mūrti-pūjā’ or enshrined Image-worship. Vedic hymns and chants are the scriptural source for sacrificial technology named ‘Śrauta’. Its jurisprudence is called Mimāṁsā; and its technology, based on applied geometry is termed as Śulba-sūtra.

Nigama Dharma

Nigama denotes that religio-cultural stream, which is rooted in ‘Yajña-saṁsthā ‘or sacrificial Institution; Nigama-dharma or Vedic stream is deemed to be An-ādi or beginning-less and ‘A-pauruśeya’ or without human authorship. The socio-political and religio-cultural life was apparently Yajña-centric; and grew and flourished around it. Through Treta and Dwapara epochs, as attested by mention of Viśvajit, Putrakameśti, Aśvamedha, Rājasūya, SarpaSatra etc. in Rāmāyaṇa and Mahābhārata, the Nigama Dharma continued to hold sway on Hindu society, even through three millennia of first lap of Kaliyuga, is evidenced from the description of a king, in the episode of ‘Indumatīsvayaṁvara’. According to that, the king is eulogized as,’ ajasramahuta-sahasra-netrahi. e. ‘who had incessantly invoked Indra, to receive oblation (Indrāya swāhā)’. As for Nigama technology, recently in the publications of’ Geometry of the Śulba-sūtras’ and ‘Yajñāyudhāni’, by ‘Vaidik Samshodhan Mandal’ and ‘Engineering Geometry of Yajña-kuṇḍas and Yajña-Maṇḍalas’ by Jnana Prabodhini are proofs of research value of Nigama Dharma. There are several research institutes in India specialized in Vedic studies, such as: Vishveshvarananda Vedic Research Institute- Hoshiarpur, Punjab, Vaidik Samshodhan Mandal, Vedashastrottejak Sabha, Ved Vijnan Mandal and Veda Gurukul, all belongs to Pune, Veda Vijnan Gurukul, Barshi, Maharashtra, Venkateshvara Vedic University, Tirupati etc.

Image worship in the  gama

The case of  gama is remarkably different. It can broadly defined as,’ enshrined image-worship’. Vyasa has termed as Sātvata-vidhi. As per this canon, Vāsudeva or Viṣṇu is the Supreme Self: Paramātmā. He is to be worshipped and served: arcanīyaśca sevyaśca, as per Sātvata mode. He was first worshipped so by Saṁkarṣaṇa himself, at the culmination of
Dvāpara and dawn of Kali: ‘dvāparasya yugasya ante adau Kaliyugasya ca|Sātvataṁ vidhiṁ āsthāya gitaḥ saṁkarṣaṇena yaḥ||


The holy river of Indian civilization (Saṁskriti-Mandākinī), flowing from time immemorial is termed as ever-ancient (chīra-purātana); yet ever-modern (nitya-nutana). However, broadly speaking, its foundation is Hinduism. It is composed of twin current: Nigama and  gama. Broadly, by the term Nigama, that current is suggested, which is trans-temporal i.e. meta-computational i.e. beginning-less and endless. Vedas, denoted by the term Nigama form its morphemic body. The temporal priority of Nigama current is obvious without doubt. The distinguishing feature of Nigamātmaka-dharma is the sacrificial institution. Its spirituo-ritual base is sacred fire. The prime Mantra of Ṛgveda is: ‘Agniṁ iḷe purohitaṁ’ (I praise Fire placed in front). It is sacred; because it is produced by churning holy sticks (Araṇi-manthana). This technique is perennially preserved in ritual tradition through all the four epochs (Kṛta to Kali). Vedic Mantras sanctify the ritual infra-structure of Yajña-saṁsthā, by apt placement and employment: mantra-viniyoga.


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The holy fire mediator between deities and worshiper

In sacrificial institution, Adhvaryu, the chief priest and four other priests: representing four Vedas: Ṛgveda, Yajurveda, Sāmaveda and Atharvaveda conduct sacrifices of short or long duration (Satra). The oblations of fuel-sticks, dipped in ghee, alongwith sesames, rice, honey etc. is addressed and allocated to various deities; Indra, Varuna etc., yet offered into sacred fire. Fire is deemed courier of respective oblations to corresponding deities. However, the gods are supposed to receive those in person, when invoked by name; Indrāya svāhā etc. The Vedic prescriptions: Agniṣṭomena Svarga-kāmo yajeta, meaning: aspirant of heaven may perform Agniṣṭoma sacrifice, etc. presumes such aspirants. It is universally accepted that pious deeds lead to heaven; and impious to hell. Heaven and hell; Sura and Asura; god and devil; Allah and Satan are parallel religious notions. This goal is supra-mundane. Even then, the craze to attain heaven, by dedicating life is seen even today in Hindu Sanyāsins, Christian missionaries and some Muslim youths, resorting to terrorism. Landmarks of performance of sacrifices for political and personal gains is documented in performance of Viśvajit Yajña by King Raghu, Putra-kāmeṣṭi Yajña by Daśaratha, Aśvamedha Yajña by Rama, Rājasūya Yajña by Yudhiṣṭhira and SarpaSatra Yajña by Janamejaya. There is a mention of donkey-sacrifice: Gardabheṣṭi, for atonement, in Dharmaśāstra. Such comprehensive sacrificial institution was sponsored and practiced by Hindu society during prevalence of Nigama-dharma.

It is evident from wide range of literary Sanskrit and also inscriptions. Kālidāsa’s references to Yajñas, even though referring to ancient king suggest to prevalence of Nigama-dharma, up to his time.

Emergence of Ahiṁsā-dharma, as revolt against goat-sacrifice and its gradual incorporation in rituals has also long history. There is a belief that Zoroastrian seer first replaced Paśuyāga, by Somayāga. In Śrauta tradition, there is special title Somayājin, for performers of Somayāga, by offering juice of Soma-creepers. The term Sava, from su (crush), indicating Soma-crushing, became synonym of Yajña. Piśṭa-paśu i.e. notional sacrifice of goat made of flour is another compromise-formula, prompted by Ahiṁsā-dharma. In Upanishadic literature, metaphoric sublimation of Yajña is termed as Brahma-Yajña, Brahma itself plays the role of oblation, deity, fire and all. It is a fact that Nigama-stream kept Hindu society culturally united for several millennia, before Kali-yuga and concurrently with  gama-dharma, till the dawn of Christian era, from Kashmir to Kanya-kumari and Puri to Dwaraka.

The beginning of  Agamas:

Agama stream of Hindu Dharma dawned on the horizon, at the end of Dvāparayuga (Dvāparasya yugasya ante); and at the advent of Kaliyuga (adau Kaliyugasya ca). This historical attestation occurs in introductory chapters of Īśvara and Parameśvara Samhitās of Pāñcarātra  gama, which is used by Vyāsa as synonym of Sātvata-vidhi. Vyāsa himself declared that Nārāyaṇa Himself is the author of total Pāñcarātra  gama (Pāñcarātrasya Kṛtsnasya vaktā Nārāyaṇaḥ svayaṁ). While Vyāsa identified Sātvata with Ekānti-dharma, believing in one and only God as supreme: Vāsudevaḥ Sarvaṁ iti, Pāñcarātra Saṁhitās conceived some Ekāyana-Veda, identified with Sātvata-code (eṣa Ekāyano Vedaḥ prakhyātaḥ Sātvatovidhiḥ). Therein, the Agamic seers have presented a notional parity between Ekāyana (Mūla) Veda. The analogy is as under: Ṛk, Yajus, Sāman and Atharvan are four Vedic Saṁhitās. Similarly, Sātvata-Pauṣkara-Jayākhya are the Saṁhitās of Ekāyana-Veda. Perhaps, there might have been some such Ekāyana Veda, of which few Mantra-pratikas, computable by just single digit are preserved in above Saṁhitās. Those Mantras emanating from Ekāyanīya branch deemed to be immensely holy (Parama-pāvanan), are to be ritually employed. With those mantras and with Sātvata canon, Lord Vāsudeva is to be worshipped (arcanīyaśca) and served (sevyaśca), by all the four social orders: Brahmins, warriors (Kṣatriyas), merchants (Vaiśyas) and menial class (śudras), who have undergone initiation (Kṛta-lakṣaṇa).

Śāstras have already declared that human being, by birth is Śudra; and becomes twice-born dvija after Saṁskāra, ’janmanā jāyate śudraḥ |saṁskārāt dvija ucyate.’  gamas further declare that those are Śudras among all Varṇas, who are not devoted to Janārdana. (Sarva-varṇeṣu te ṣudrah ye hi abhaktaḥ Janārdane|). It is learnt that in Hindu- populated ‘Bali ‘ Island of Indonesia, there is a provision of upward promotion for Hindus of lower Varṇas ; thus Śudras become Balavaiśyas, Balakṣatriyas and Balabrāhmaṇas. In the Viśvakarmā profession there are conventions of permutation and combination of Yajamāna, the host builder and Sthapati, the chief architectural engineer belonging to all the four Varṇas. This phenomenon is apparently influenced by Sātvatavidhi of Mahābhārata which opened the doors of enshrined image-worship to all Varṇas. Hereby, importance of initiation (Dīkṣā) is emphasized. Initiated Śudras were admitted in Agamic fold as Śat-śudras. In order to provide Dharma-shastric sanction, one Śudrādhikāra Saṁhitā is written by a Pāñcarātra jurist; and it is preserved in Madras University manuscript collection.  gama-dharma is propagated by Pāñcarātra seers, by composing Saṁhitās on one hand and popularizing enshrined image-worship, encompassing Bharat by large-scale temple-building activity, on the other hand.

Origin of Iconic form of the God:

Adoration of personal god, in iconic form is believed to be originated in Kashmir, as per proposition adduced by R.G. Bhandarkar, in his book: Shaivism, Vaishnavism and minor religious sects. In  cārya lineage of Śrīvaiṣṇavas, Yamunācārya, the Guru of Rāmānujācārya, has himself labeled Pāñcarātra, as Kashmir  gama, in his magnum opus ( gama-prāmāṇya). While placing Vedas, which emerged out of divine breath (yasya niḥśvasitaṁ Vedaḥ), with Pāñcarātra, Which is oral utterance of Nārāyaṇa. It may be termed as equiv.-scriptural authority for  gama-dharma of enshrined image-worship. Sātvata-vidhi of Bhīṣma-parvan, Sātvata-dharma as variant reading for Bhagavad-gitā phrase (śāśvata-dharma and Sātvata-kriyāmārga in Sātvata Saṁhitā denote one and the same canon:  gama-dharma. In the introductory chapter in Sātvata Saṁhitā, Paraśurāma directs Nārada, to initiate the sages, practicing penance on mount Malaya into Sātvata modality. Apparently, this also indicates migration of Sātvatavidhi, from north to south.

Propagation of Sātvata Dharma :

Besides, it also indicates the urge of propagators of Sātvata Dharma to carry a mission to bring more and more people in its canonic fold. Historically, its first record is in etymology of the term Vāsudevaka, in the sutra: Vāsudevārjunābhyāṁ vuñ in Panini’s grammar. There suffix ‘ka’ denotes devotee of Vāsudva, carrying His idol, for propagation. Next evidence is epigraphical one, from Ghosundi pillar inscription, of II century B.C., wherein some ‘Heliodora’ Bhāgavata is said to have erected a Viṣṇu-dhvaja (Heliodorena Bhāgavatena kārita iyaṁViṣṇu-dhvaja). It is a doubtless proof of some eminent Greek donor had embraced Bhāgavata faith; and that he was honorably admitted it in its fold. Another contemporary example is of queen Nāganikā becoming follower of Saṁkarṣaṇa and Vāsudeva as per Naneghat inscription of Junnar, in Maharashtra. The next is the case of Utpalācārya of Kashmir (circa. 9thc.a.d.). After embracing Vaiṣṇava faith he took the title Utpalavaiṣṇava. Śaṅkarācārya also called the propagators of this faith as Bhāgavatas (evaṁ Bhāgavavataḥ manyante). Rāmānujācārya is said to have converted a Jain king Bittideva to Vaiṣṇava faith; and renamed him as Viṣṇu-vardhana, in 11thc.a.d. He donated the Yadugirikṣretra to Rāmānujācārya, where he made a Vaiṣṇava settlement of 70 families, who migrated along with him, from Tamilnadu to Karnataka. Under royal patronage, Nārāyaṇadri, Yadugiri. i.e. present Melkote had independent status like Vetican city, with one of them appointed as king: ‘DoraiIengar’ and another ‘MantriIengar’. After that, admission in to Agamic faith was on mass scale. In last century, Bhaktivedant Prabhupad admitted thousands of Americans to Hare Krishna cult, by ignition laid down in  gama-dharma. Svāminārāyaṇa organization followed the suit, built temples, at several places in India and abroad; and propagated  gama-dharma, not only among Hindus but also non Hindus, on large scale, by admitting neo-Heliodoruses into Bhagavata fold.

In this context, it would be proper to invoke Sātvata-vidhi of Bhīṣma-parva. According to it Bhagavān Vāsudeva is to be worshipped (arcanīya) and served (sevya). What is special purpose of it? Who is that god? Apparently, he is Janatā-Janārdana. His service is charitable work. In Nigama-dharma, it is Apūrta, which follows Iṣṭa I. e. Yajña; and includes construction of step-wells (Vāpī), rope-wells (Kūpa), lakes (Taṭāka) etc. In  gama-dharma, the scope of charity became much wider and accommodated charitable guest houses and free food-services: Dharmaśālās and Anna-chatras. There are several inscriptions carved in lakes etc. One such inscription is in a tank near Shravanabelgola, the seat of Gomaṭeśvara, in Karnatak, where it reads in archaic Marathi, that Ganga Raja built that lake (gaṅgarajesut tale karaviyale). The Sātvata order of Arcanā and Seva has grown on such large scale that Andhra, Karnataka and Tamilnadu have established Hindu religious and charitable departments with separate ministers; and Kerala has Hindu Devaswami board.

Vāsudeva the supreme one :

The first document of Sātvata mode of adoration of personal god is Sātvata Saṁhitā (circa 200 A.D.). It is also the first document of CaturVyūha doctrine of Pāñcarātra, first mentioned in Śāntiparva of Mahābhārata. Therein, Vyāsa has recorded its origination in lone supreme Self Vāsudeva (eka-Vyūha-vibhāga) and its culmination into fourfold divine manifestation (caturVyūha), via two-fold manifestation (dvi-Vyūha) and threefold manifestation (tri-Vyūha). This Vyūha-siddhānta is dogmatically inseparable from Sātvata-Pāñcarātra metaphysics, which can safely be termed as Vyuhādvaita. Pāñcarātra and Vyūha-siddhānta are sine qua non: mutually in exclusive. Apparently, Rāmānuja’s specified monism, Mādhva’s dualism, Vallabha’s pure monism evolved out of Pāñcarātra, termed as Śruti (Pāñcarātra-śrutau api, Pāñcarātra-upaniṣadi, etc.). Lakṣmī-tantra (circa 900 A.D.) elucidates Vyūha doctrine. The available evidence of Vyūha metaphysics, from Gitā to Lakṣmī-tantra, can be supplemented by grammar-based etymology of the terms: Vāsudeva Saṁkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna and Aniruddha. Thus the term Vāsudeva is formed from two verbal roots: vas (to dwell) and div (to shine). Thereby, it denotes that ultimate reality which is characterized by existence and glow.

The etymology of Vāsudeva as,’ Vasudevasya apatyaṁ pumān’ i.e. ‘male offspring of Vasudeva’ is mythologically indisputable. But grammatical etymology fits well in metaphysical thematisazion. Pāñcarātra metaphysics has further conceived a notion of ‘will to create: sisṛkṣā, dormant within that supreme reality: Vasu-deva. In Vāsudeva stage, it is merely dormant and inert. In Saṁ-karṣaṇa phase, it is restless and exerts internal struggle. The term Saṁ-karṣaṇa is made of saṁ+ kṛṣ (pull together). This internal struggle is of the inherent faculty of Vāsudeva the supreme self. In the next assertion of Sisṛkṣā, it emits assertive flashes, beyond perceptivity. It is Pradyumna stage. The term Pra-dyumna is derived from prefix pra equivalent of English prefix pro, both meaning ‘forward’. It is like flash (dyumna) of torch in darkness.

Yet, nothing is tangible or concrete. In the fourth i.e. final phase of that divine will to create, it becomes irresistible, defies the suppression and becomes manifest in the form of universally visible cosmos, around. The term A-ni-ruddha literally means: a (negation); ni(tight); and rudh (suppress). In metaphysical conclusion, it may be said that whatever was the ultimate truth: Vāsudeva, marked merely by existence and glow has now culminated into Aniruddha; the visible and tangible cosmos, after ultimately successful struggle of sisṛkṣā, passing through the four waning stages of suppression: Vāsudeva-Saṁkarṣaṇa- Pradyumna and Aniruddha. These four are basically technical terms of Vyuhādvaita metaphysics. The serial order of four names in Sandhyā-vandana (Saṁkarṣaṇa-Vāsudeva-Pradyumna-Aniruddha is based on kinship seniority: elder brother, younger brother, son and grandson. As per Pāñcarātra metaphysics, Paramātmā the Supreme Self is viewed in fivefold aspect: 1 –Para (Supreme), 2- Vyūha (four fold manifestation), 3 – Vibhava (incarnational) , 4 – Antaryāmi (Indweller) , 5 – Arcā (Iconic Form). In this scheme, the physically sculpted icon is exalted to metaphysical status. On the whole, among the Advaitc extensions: Viśiṣṭādvaita, Śuddhādvaita, Dvaitādvaita etc. Pāñcarātra deserves to be called Vyuhādvaita.

The theme and scheme of philosophy and practice of Agamic Panca-rārta is cāturya: code number four. Thus CaturVyūha doctrine in metaphysics, catuṣpāda-racanā in scriptural arrangement and catuḥ-sthānārcanā, i.e. worship of Vāsudeva in four loations: 1.Image: Biṁba ,2 Pitcher:Kuṁbha ,3 Mystc diagram: Maṇḍala ,and 4 Fire-pit: Kuṇḍa. In the Agamic fire-worship, Viṣṇu alone is invoked into fire and worshipped agamic offerings. However, it is specially instructed that it should offer sacred thread by placing around fire-pit and not put into fire (bhūṣayet na tu homayet).

Engineering technology in the  gamas :

Just as Śrauta Dharma gave impetus to the engineering technology of Yajña-kuṇḍas and Yajña-maṇḍapas, based on Śhulba applied geometry,  gamas planned a special section: Kriyā-pāda to develop religious engineering, incorporating temple architecture, iconography and sculpture. The  gama termed as Sātvata-vidhi, in Bhīṣmaparva, expanded its connotation in Mokṣa-dharma section of Mahābhārata, to Bhāgavata and Ekāntidharma. In its wider fold, Vaikhānasa  gama skillfully blended Śrauta-vidhi into Sātvata-vidhi. It evolved a specialized code, in which the entire infra-structure of enshrined image-worship, round the clock and round the year, was potentialized by a plan of exclusively Vedic Mantras.

Pāñcarātra  gama, on the other hand, embellished the same infra-structure of enshrined image worship of Viṣṇu, on the basis of twin Mantric source or Vedic and Tantric or Agamic (Veda-Tantra-ubhayodbhuta). Śaiva  gama joined the  gama stream by placing Śiva in the scheme of enshrined image worship. The devotees of Gaṇapati, Śakti and other deities followed the suit and Gāṇapatya and Śākta  gamas, keeping their identity, joined the confluence of  gama Dharma.

Initially, from time immemorial, Nigama Dharma, dominated by Yajña-saṁsthā reigned for few millennia. Then, the two: Nigama and  gama streams ran concurrently for about three post- Dvāpara millennia of Kaliyuga. Gradually, Nigama-dharma was relegated to back bench, when temple-building activity got accelerated. Agamic seers seem to have furnished a conversion table of ‘Puṇya’ ‘being accrued by a temple-builder, which was equated to performance of thousand Ashvamedha sacrifices etc. Pāñcarātra section of Brahmasūtras indirectly paved the way to the growth of influence of Agamic scriptures on the one hand and temple-building activity on the other.

Some later Śaṅkarācārya innovated Pancāyatana scheme of pantheist enshrined image worship, in which there is one main deity and other four are ancillary gods. Thus, Śiva-pañcāyatana, Viṣṇu-pañcāyatana etc. gave wider scope for devotees for more than one deities worship.

Unlike Nigama-dharma,  gama-dharma has divine-incarnation authorship. Apparently, it was heritage of Yadu family, propagated by lord Krishna, for ensuing Kaliyuga. Once introduced, it maintains uprising graph, without break. In the far end of fifth millennium of Kaliyuga and beginning of sixth milennium, the temple-building and idol-installation activity is pervading, not only pan-Indian but also global map.

Amalgamation of  gama and Nigama :

On the whole, the  gama Dharma tried to consolidate various inherited traditions incorporated in both the streams: Nigama and  gama. Thus, Pāñcarātra philosophy propounding five aspects of the supreme self: Para, Vyūha, Vibhava, Antaryāmi and Arcā catered the needs of various sections of Hindu society approaching supreme truth. Para is attainable through rational pursuit (Jñānagamya), Vyūha aspect explains the cosmic evolution, sustenance and involution; Vibhava, which is similar to the concept of divine incarnations; ‘Avatāra’ apprises a common person that righteous conduct is rewarded by incarnation through grace and unrighteous conduct is punished. The Antaryāmi aspect appeals introvert seekers of spiritual bliss; since they have aptitude and ability for meditation (Dhyānagamya). Arcā, i.e. iconic aspect appeals common devotees since they have not to practice mental concentration of abstract form. They have before them the supreme self who is first personified and then deified.  gama Dharma systematized devotional sentiment into a framework of idol-worship with service-courses numbering upto 16 (Ṣoḍaśopacāra). All those services are called royal treatment (Rājopacāra). The image worship is also planned that the devotee can have it in two modes: domestic and enshrined (Svārtha and Parārtha). The first is for personal benefit and the second one is performed by the priest and the merit is shared by public at large.

Temple worship :

The temple worship is more elaborate and performed in large scale. This can be appreciated by the quantum of Puja material used in big temples like Venkaṭeśvara. Huge sandalwood log is rubbed on a big stone for preparation of paste. Likewise camphor powder is also used in big quantity. The queue of devotees slowly progressing for Darśan covers few kilometers. The devotees have to climb seven hills to reach the main sanctum. Temple-township of Śriraṅgaṁ has seven enclosure walls and twenty eight tower gates. The circumambulatory paths are so wide that tourist buses can freely roam about. One professor in IIT, Chennai has got doctorate on the theme of temple-township of Śriraṅgaṁ. In present times, Akṣardhāma temples of Delhi, Gandhinagar etc. in India and such others in Europe and America impress the visitors by grandeur. The rock cut Kailāsa temple at Ellora and rock fort temple of Tiruchirapalli, are tourist attractions. Badari and Kedāra temples in Uttarakhanda and also Vaishnodevi and Amarnath in Kashmir are adventurous attractions for pilgrims. It has to the credit of Hindu ancestors that they have sanctified the mountaineering adventures by building shrines there over.

From temporal perspective, daily, some activity relating to temple: site-selection to consecration and installation of image (laying of first brick: prathameṣṭakā to laying of top-brick: Mūrdheṣṭakā or from land-seasoning: Karṣaṇādi to image-installation: pratiṣṭhāntaṁ) is taking place, somewhere on global surface. The maxim: ‘sun does not set on British empire’ is now true of the sovereign rule of  gama-dharma.

This documentation is a modest attempt to highlight the valuable contribution of the Ṛṣis who promulgated and promoted the perennial twin stream of Hinduism :  gama Dharma and Nigama Dharma. Retrospection is ever intended for prospect. Lord Kṛṣṇa has said in BhagavadGitā that,He re-incarnates himself, epoch after epoch for establishment of Dharma, It is the motto of Ṛṣis to civilize the entire globe by noble precept: ‘Kṛṇvanto viśvaṁ  ryaṁ’ . After systematizing the Hindu society, the Ṛṣis have appealed the human beings spread over the surface of the earth that they may take lessons from the code of conduct of the citizen born in this country, which is ancient of all (‘etat deśa prasūtasya sakāṣāt agrajanmanaḥ| svaṁ svaṁ caritraṁ Śikṣeran pṛthīvyāṁ sarvamānavaḥ)

It is the sacred and bounden duty of future generations of Hindu society spread all over the world to carry the mission of setting the model of civilized way of social life, I.e. Hindu culture before the followers of other faiths, to take inspiration. Generations may come and go, but the  gamas and Nigamas – twin stream will go on forever.